The most important objective of a sprint in Scrum is to deliver a DONE product increment – a piece of working software delivering value for the end-user. That is the goal today, and always has been the goal.

In a context, in which multiple Scrum teams work on the same product, it’s the goal – and only goal –  to deliver each (and every) sprint an integrated product increment – so no UNDONE work left at the end of the sprint.

How do you define DONE?

Scrum does not define what “done” means for a product – that’s to be defined by the development team.

Yet the goal is to get better and raise the bar, in order to be able to deliver a piece of valuable working software at the end of each sprint.

With support of the Scrum Master, the development team improves their practices at a steady pace to be able to reach that goal.

The Scrum Guide says:

“As Scrum Teams mature, it is expected that their definitions of “Done” will expand to include more stringent criteria for higher quality. Any one product or system should have a definition of “Done” that is a standard for any work done on it.”

Unfortunately, we observe that many Scrum teams (or teams saying to practice Scrum) are not able to deliver a done product increment at the end of each sprint. In the world of software development, this means a piece of working software (end to end) ready to be used by a customer (end-user). Some teams simply do not care and finish the work till done at a next sprint.

The output at the of the sprint has been called a potentially shippable product increment. Some teams interpreted this as “the product increment is ready to be shipped, but actually there’s still some work to do to actually release it to the customer“. That’s obviously not the point.

That’s why the Scrum Guide says:

“The Development Team consists of professionals who do the work of delivering a potentially releasable Increment of “Done” product at the end of each Sprint.”

A lesson from Scrum history

Jeff Sutherland and Ken Schwaber, – the creators of Scrum have been updated the Scrum guide over time. It’s interesting to read how in previous versions of the Scrum guide there was more detail about what done actually means, and what to do with “undone” work. The reason in general that some artefact and details have been left out, is to make the description of Scrum as a framework more simple, clear to understand and lightweight.

From Scrum Guide, version 2009:

A completely “done” increment includes all of the analysis, design, refactoring, programming, documentation and testing for the increment and all Product Backlog items in the increment. Testing includes unit, system, user, and regression testing, as well as non-functional tests such as performance, stability, security, and integration. Done includes any internationalization.

You clearly get the picture, that “done” includes all the work necessary to be able to have a piece of releasable, valuable software at the end of the sprint.

It continues:

“Undone” work is often accumulated in a Product Backlog item called “Undone Work” or “Implementation Work.”

Sprint by Sprint, the “undone” work of each increment is accumulated and must be addressed prior to releasing the product. This work is accumulated linearly although it actually has some sort of exponential accumulation that is dependent on each organization’s characteristics. Release Sprints are added to the end of any release to complete this “undone” work. The number of Sprints is unpredictable to the degree that the accumulation of “undone” work is not linear.

Take care, the current Scrum Guide does not specify a “release sprint” as a practice. This is similar to the “hardening” sprint defined in – for example – the Scaled Agile Framework. In Scrum, this is considered a bad practice. As stated the goal – and only goal is to create a done product increment at the end of each sprint. “Undone” work piles up and increases risks and delays.

The word “undone” is not mentioned anymore in the current version of the Scrum Guide.

A perfect definition of done

Large-Scale Scrum (LeSS) (by Craig Larman and Bas Vodde) do explicitly mention “undone” work – in larger organisations there are often whole teams (e.g. an “operations” team, a “services” team) or whole departments (“operations” departement) or people (“release manager”) existing which are to be considered part of “undone” work if this cannot be done as part of the sprint (and it often cannot be done within a sprint).

A perfect definition of “done” implies that each product increment is

  • valuable
  • immediately releasable to the end-user

And that should be the goal of perfection.

To be able to achieve this as a team, effort is necessary to invest in:

  • software craftsmanship
  • automated testing
  • continuous integration
  • deployment automation

without sound technical practices it’s fairly impossible to achieve this on any scale (small or large).

Do not make a mistake, this is quite a challenge for many teams who (try to) practice Scrum.

All variants on Scrum who do not achieve the actual state of “done” product increments, according to the rules stipulated in the Scrum guide, are not to be considered Scrum teams.

What does done means in software development?

I quote this from – Ken Schwaber – and any software development team should adhere to these (working in Scrum or not)

The end result should include software that has:

  • Presence of valuable functionality for customers to use;
  • Absence of low value functionality that must be maintained and sustained regardless;
  • Quality code base to predictably maintain and sustain;
  • Quality code base to enhance without undue effort or risk;
  • Ability to catch defects early and no later than at release;
  • Predictability of schedules; and,
  • A Lack of surprises.

Which raises the question, what is quality software?

It has these characteristics:

  • I can readily understand the software and where & how things happen;
  • When I change or add to part of the software, there are no unintended or poorly designed dependencies;
  • I can read the code without looking for tricks or poorly defined and labeled variables or data;
  • I don’t need the person(s) that wrote the code to explain it to me;
  • There are a full set of (automated) tests to check that the function works as expected;
  • When I change something and add to the tests, I can check that the entire change and product continues to work;
  • How things work and hang together is transparent;
  • Standard, well-known design principles have been adhered to.

Source: Quality, Done Increment

Keep on improving!

Scrum – It is what it is.

And I don’t intend to say that with a negative perspective.

Quite often people wonder why Scrum – a framework for complex product development – has the rules as described in the Scrum Guide. The authors of Scrum (Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland) say that the framework contains the roles, events, artifacts, and the rules that bind them together necessary to operate. Adding, changing or removing something will not make it Scrum anymore and a Scrum team will not work optimally.

Quote by Ken Schwaber:

“Scrum is a general-purpose framework applicable in complex situations, where more is unknown about the parameters than is known. The rules of empiricism and self-organizing make it work within short iterations that control the risk and increase chances of finding answers and creating value. The few roles, artifacts and events are fixed so the Scrum team can focus on unraveling complexity.”

What’s your opinion?

Read the original blog posts here.

Agile Transformation is a strategy, not a goal.

I came across an interesting article on InfoQ, it’s titled “Transforming from Projects to Products“. If you want deeper understanding on topics, InfoQ offers descent and great articles. So I’d like you (someone in any position who plans or is part of an “agile transformation” to read this).

Excerpts of the article:

The general understanding and perception of “Agile” or “agile”

” ‘Agile’ as we have come to know it whether we mean Scrum, Kanban, Lean, Lean Start-up, or any of the many other Agile frameworks is, in most cases a collection of historic good practices and guidelines identified by successful leaders and businesses in the past, they have been collected under one umbrella polished up a bit and marketed – very successfully – which is likely why you are reading this.  I say this to discourage the notion that ‘Agile’ is new and untested, there are certainly some misinterpretations and misapplications but the underlying principles are sound and based on a lot of experience.”

In fact, each company or organisations should be concerned to become more agile (as defined in the dictionary), this is a matter of sound principles and ‘common sense‘ (for example: eliminate waste and become more effective in what you do – certainly in software development / product delivery there are many ways to achieve this).

If an agile transformation is not an end-goal, what is the goal?

Organisations shouldn’t embark on a mission to become agile, without understanding what it takes in terms of cultural and organisational changes – and most importantly: figure out what they want to achieve – why do you need a change?

Questions to be asked:

  • Are your customers dissatisfied?
  • Are your products missing the mark?
  • Do you (or your clients) feel you are not getting value for money?
  • Are you slow to market?
  • If you are creating software products for internal teams are they not having the impact you expected?
  • Are people circumventing your tools?
  • Is your ROI on software development too low?
  • Are you losing key development staff?
  • Is there a lack of transparency in the software development process?

As you notice these questions which concern the whole organisation. Any initiative for improvement should be looked at globally – at an organisational (systems) level – in order to avoid local optimisations.

  • What are the major areas of improvement?
  • Transform from projects to products, including:
    • Stop managing, and start leading
    • Shift from “output” (deliverables), to focus on “outcomes”
  • Embrace the idea there is (and will be) uncertainty, instead of fighting it.

“Agile Product Leadership is about accepting the plan is likely wrong or at the very least unclear and the scope is unknown, and so adapting to change and building the right things to fulfil our customers’ needs.”

  • Reward people based on contribution to a common goal, instead of individual performance

Changing from:
“What will I do today?” to “What can I do to help the team towards our goal today?”
can make a huge difference to behaviour.

Common understanding why we want to change as an organisation

“Your business should be saying:

  • Where do we need to improve?
  • and how will we measure success?

Agile transformation may be a means of reaching that goal.

“If you choose an Agile Transformation you will measure success by delivering what customers need, by creating happy and satisfied customers not adherence to a plan. You will measure teams success by those that are willing to learn and grow.  By empowering teams to make decisions for themselves you can create an environment of continuous improvement.”

Read the full article at InfoQ.

and recall:

Image source:

Agile/lean podcasts!

Listening to podcasts

Podcasts are a great way to learn and to listen in to conversations with people you’ve might have heard of, but you don’t really know who they are. Podcasts are a tremendous source to learn about new topics – virtually anything!

I’ve been listening to podcasts for a while, mainly topics relevant to my professional occupation – but there are many many podcasts out there! I listen to podcast when commuting to work, on public transport or you can connect your mobile phone using bluetooth to your car audio system. At home in the evening, I can enjoy listening to a podcast (or an audiobook) – it’s a different experience than reading a book or blog – and I find it more relaxing.

Recommended podcasts on the topic of agile & lean thinking

Scrum Master Toolbox Podcast

Host: Vasco Duarte

Format: short episodes (10-15 minutes), from time to time a special longer episode

Content: Interviewing Scrum Masters world-wide

Why I like it: Vasco is a a great interviewer, the podcast has a clear structure, and Vasco is knowledge able on the topic – in other words, he can place questions and answers, he can put items discussed in a larger context. You hear real-world experiences of Scrum Masters. One remark: I do sometimes skip certain episodes if the interviewee doesn’t speak English good enough 🙂

The podcast has a fixed format: each week a Scrum Master is interviewed. Each day of the week, the Scrum Master interviewed is asked a question.

And some Belgian have been interviewed too! (Gunther Verheyen, Yves Hanoulle)

List of the episodes

Agile for Humans

Host: Ryan Ripley

Format: mostly panel discussions, sometimes interviews with a specific interview during a conference. Episode length around 1 hour average.

Why I like it: these podcasts are recordings of informal chats and panel discussions, with people like Tim Ottinger, Zach Bonaker, Amitai Schleier. By listening you can follow their thoughts process, hear pro’s and con’s and challenge their thinking with your own thinking.

List of the episodes

Agile Uprising

Host(s)Ryan Lockard, Andy Cleff and others.

Format: panel discussions, interviews

Why I like it:

  • The Agile Uprising are interviewing some of the prominent principal agile & lean thinkers. This is a great chance to hear some of the thought leaders, talking about the past, present and future of agile and lean. Interviews with: Mary and Tom Poppendeick, Martin Fowler, Jurgen Appelo, Jeff Gothelf, David Anderson, Joshua Kerievsky, Jason Little, Ken Schwaber, Ron Jeffries, Jeff Sutherland, Andy Hunt, Mike Beedle, Bob Martin (Uncle Bob), Alistair Cockburn, and many others!
  • The Agile Uprising had a project in which they interviewed most of the agile manifesto signatories. You can hear them speak about how the agile manifesto for software development came about, how the term ‘agile‘ was chosen, and how actually that meeting at Snowbird, Utah, in 2001 went.

Listen to the Manifesto Author Review. (currently 14 out of 17 of the original signatories have been interviewed)

I can highly recommend the episodes of the manifesto author interviews – the set of questions are largely the same for all interviewees:

  • What were your activities and professional occupations with regard to the “lightweight” software development processes prior to 2001?
  • How did you get invited to the event at Snowbird?
  • How did the event went? The day prior, the 1st day and 2nd day – you can insight how the word “agile” came about
  • What are your thought on how the agile movement grew, since 2001?

Agile Uprising List of episodes

Joy at Work, how to lead

  1. When given the opportunity to use our ability to reason, make decisions, and take responsibility for our actions, we experience joy at work.
  2. The purpose of business is not to maximize profits for shareholders but to steward our resources to serve the world in an economically sustainable way.
  3. Attempt to create the most fun workplace in the history of the world.
  4. Eliminate management, organization charts, job descriptions, and hourly wages.
  5. Fairness means treating everybody differently.
  6. Principles and values must guide all decisions.
  7. Put other stakeholders (shareholders, customers, suppliers, etc) equal to or above yourself.
  8. Everyone must get advice before making a decision. If you don’t seek advice, “you’re fired.”
  9. A “good” decision should make all the stakeholders unhappy because no individual or group got all they wanted.
  10. Lead with passion, humility, and love.

Zelfsturing, heelheid en een evolutief doel


Overgenomen van: Hadrian’s Agile Wall

#Agile, #Holacracy, #Sociocracy, #Teal en #Cyan Organisaties

Wanneer we het Agile Manifesto lezen herkennen we, weliswaar op een andere schaal (product teams in plaats van organisaties), veel van de principes die in het boek “Reinventing Organisaties” ook voorkomen:

  • Zelfsturing: “Individuals and interactions over processes and tools” en we hoeven niet uit te leggen dat zelfsturende, liefst multi-functionele teams één van de fundamenten is van agile werken.
  • Heelheid past ook volledig in het statement “Individuals and interactions over processes and tools“. Het is juist de bedoeling van in een open sfeer en een omgeving van vertrouwen te werken tussen de business, de product owner en het team analisten, ontwikkelaars, designers, testers en support team. Agile stimuleert iedereen om bij de minste twijfel over iets of indien er verbetering mogelijk is, dit ook te melden. Deze vertrouwvolle omgeving brengt ons ook dichter bij ons innerlijke zelf, zonder dat we een rol moeten spelen. Zoals wanneer de junior ontwikkelaar geen opmerking durft geven aan de ervaren technische architect of de onervaren tester die een fout gevonden heeft in de analyse en dit niet durft te melden aan de senior analist. Agile werkt enkel in een sfeer van transparantie, openheid, respect en vertrouwen. Zonder dat kan je niet naar deze nieuwe vorm van samenwerking groeien. Niet alle voorwaarden moet van in het begin ingevuld zijn, maar de intentie om er te willen geraken is onontbeerlijk.
  • Evolutief doel komt perfect overeen met “Responding to change over following a plan“. Geen up-front analyses meer en dan in silo’s dit ontwikkelen, testen en uitrollen. Geen vastgespijkerd plan maar experimenteren, feedback verzamelen en waar nodig aanpassen.

Het is ook veel gemakkelijker om stap per stap dit nieuwe denken toe te passen binnen teams, maar indien het top management zich hierin niet kan vinden blijft het zeer moeilijk om dit ingang te laten vinden in je organisatie.